excerpted from the Weird Chicago book
Phillips appears to have designed at least four submarines in his lifetime - according to his descendants, his third model, built in 1851 and known as the Marine Cigar, was stable enough that he was able to take his family on fantastic underwater picnics (this was probably the one he lost in 1853 while trying to salvage the wreck of The Atlantic in Lake Erie - it's still lost in the lake today). A fourth model had torpedo mechanisms added. These third and fourth models were improvements of his earlier, less successful boats; the first, built in 1845, was a fish-shaped apparatus that sank in Trail Creek near Michigan City. The second just may have been the Fool Killer.
While actual details are scarce, family legend has it that Phillips' second model was a forty-foot cigar-shaped submarine that was built in the late 1840s (in an 1853 letter to the Navy, Phillips did mention building a sub in 1847). According to these family stories, the machine lacked a decent mechanism for propulsion and sank on a test run in the Chicago River. Phillips' family said, decades later, that the submarine found in the river was undoubtedly one of his.
That the Fool Killer was a Lodner Phillips creation seems to be backed up mainly by family legend, which is not always reliable; another Phillips family legend states than when Phillips refused to sell one of his boats to the British Navy, they sank it, a story that is almost certainly not true. And the letter Phillips wrote to the Navy in 1853 indicates that the submarine he built in 1847 was a success - no mention is made of it sinking (though the letter was an attempt to sell his latest boat to the Navy, and talking about failed models wouldn't have been much of a selling point).
But that the Fool Killer was one of Phillips' subs is still the best explanation that has yet been offered for the origin of the mysterious submarine. No drawings or diagrams for his second submarine survive, but drawings of Philips' subs from the 1850s do strongly resemble the pictures of the Fool Killer that eventually came to light.
So, could the submarine have been beneath the river since the 1840s? It's entirely possible, especially if the reports about the ship being from 1870 are incorrect, as has been suggested. Some recent articles have stated that Phillips sold the submarine in 1871 to a man who promptly sunk it, explaining the early newspaper reports of the sub being from that era, but Phillips was busy being dead by this time.
Who, then, was the poor man who died onboard? Since Peter Nissen died onboard a different ship, not a submarine, and William Nissen seems to have been alive when the sub was raised, the identity of the ship's poor victim remains a mystery.
It's possible that the bones were planted on the submarine when it was raised in 1915 as a publicity stunt to get more people to come see it on exhibition. After all, complete skeletons were not found - just skulls and a few other bones. What happened to the rest of them? The Phillips' family legend about the sub sinking in the river don't include anything about anyone being onboard at the time. Also, Phillips first and third sub models were known to have escape hatches - why wouldn't the second one have had one?
William Deneau does seem to have been a bit of a showman - in 1958, on the anniversary of the Eastland Disaster, Deneau told reporters that he had just been onboard the repaired Eastland - which, he said, was still sailing under another name - for a cruise from California to Catalina the year before. In fact, the ship had been scrapped years before. Like most great showmen, Deneau may have been willing to fudge the facts a bit in the name of a great story.
While it's likely that we'll never know the truth about the bones, many of the questions about the submarine and its origins could surely be answered today if anyone knew where the submarine was now - but unfortunately, this is another mystery.
In May of 1916, the submarine was listed in newspapers among the attractions at Parker's Greatest Shows, a traveling carnival run by Charles W. Parker, which had arrived for a weeklong engagement in Oelwein, Iowa. It was listed as "The Submarine or Fool Killer, the first submarine ever built," being exhibited along with "skee ball, a new amusement device," but it was merely listed among other top draws, including "The Electric Girl, The Vegetable King, Snooks, the smallest monkey in the world (the paper was especially enchanted with the monkey, who delighted crowds by sucking his thumb), the fat girl, and the Homeliest Woman in the World." The Fool Killer was mentioned in the papers almost daily, though one can imagine that it didn't take much to make the papers in the town of Oelwein in 1916. In any case, it does not seem to have been as big a draw as the monkey. No mention was made of the bones, which may not have traveled on with the submarine.
By 1917, Parker's Greatest Shows had replaced the sub with a new submarine that could demonstrate manuevers in a giant glass tank, leaving historians to speculate Parker sold the old submarine for scrap, but no one really knows what happened to it - it could still be out there someplace today, as far as anyone knows!
We here at Weird Chicago are continuing our search for more information about the craft and what became of it - but it's likely that the riddle of the fool killer will never truly be solved!
The Fool Killer Submarine - our first post on the subject!
The Fool Killer Ad our post featuring the Tribune ad
The Fool Killer: More Evidence - a post comparing a drawing of one of Phillips' subs to photos of the foolkiller
Fool Killer Clue? - speculating that newspaper reports that the sub dated to the 1870s might have been mistaking it for OTHER experimental subs.
Finding the Fool Killer - a newly-unearthed account of the submarine's discovery, with an early guess as to its origin.